Reading Beauvoir’s The Mandarins reminded me why I fell in love with French literature and what a fine novel can do. This huge 1,000-page chunkster is like an intellectual blockbuster, full of affairs and intrigues both personal and political. It captures the spirit of a lost era, when the world trembled on the brink of a much-feared third war; it bristles with ideas, offers some fine character portraits, and for those who may be interested in such things, is a profoundly autobiographical rewriting of the relationships between Beauvoir, Camus and Sartre. What I loved this novel for essentially is that it is really about something important, and although its particular historical era may have passed, its political concerns still seem vital to me today.
The novel opens at the end of the Occupation in 1944 with a New Year’s Eve party. Paris has been liberated and the mood is one of jubilation and hope. The friends joined together to celebrate have all been involved in the Resistance, and dreadful as the war has been, it has firmed up their sense of the kind of world they need to create in the aftermath. These are intellectuals, writers and thinkers, and they believe that they have the means at their disposal to reach and affect public opinion. It’s time for the rebirth of a nation, and at the outset it seems as if reason will prevail, but the characters have not taken into account how fractured politics will become, how complicated their own personal lives will be, nor how scarred the war will have left them all.
Henri Perron (Camus) is the editor of an important literary journal and a novelist. He is living with Paule, a one-time singer who has invested excessively in the relationship but whom he no longer loves. He is a good man and a creative talent, but emotionally weak and compliant. His best friend, Robert Dubreuil (Sartre) is also a writer and a political animal; in him politics comes first and writing second. He is a figure of some intellectual authority, a leader of men. He is married to Anne (Beauvoir) who is a psychotherapist, and they have a daughter, Nadine, who is an emmerdeuse, or in other words, quite the most irritating character ever created. The narrative will alternate between chapters in which Henri takes centre stage, albeit in the third person, and Ann writing a first-person account of her life. Beauvoir wrote this novel shortly after The Second Sex, and it begins a series of books in which she explores the problems women encounter when their primary role is that of significant other to a man. Anne and Robert’s marriage has been platonic for some time. When she travels to America for a conference, she meets the Chicago-based writer, Lewis Brogan (Nelson Algren in real life) and her story is bound up with this passionate love affair that eventually turns sour because Ann will not uproot and live in America with him. Readers often comment on how wretched Beauvoir’s female characters are, and both Paule and Anne will suffer intolerably for love. This is in the era before anyone ever thought that there might be such things as role models for women, and in any case, Beauvoir wouldn’t have known what they looked like. But she knew what was wrong in heterosexual relations and in a society that made women second-class citizens, and she was never less than stark in her representations of their fate.
So there is a distinct gender political line to this novel, not least in the way the female characters carry the storylines concerning love, and the male characters slug it out in the political arena. In the late 40s, early 50s, the start of the cold war, France felt sandwiched between the superpowers of America and Russia, and politics was in a bitter struggle between Capitalism and Communism. The characters in the novel are determinedly on the left and edging towards Communism, firm in the belief that while there are people starving and helpless across the globe, there must be a socialist doctrine in place to eradicate poverty. Dubreuil has begun a new political party, one that is on the left but which is independent from Communism. The position of this party is fraught and delicate, and Dubreuil leans on Henri Perron to affiliate his popular journal to Dubreuil’s cause. Reluctantly, Henri does so, becoming far more enmeshed in politics than he wants to be. And then, reports start to filter in of the Soviet work camps. Whilst both Dubreuil and Henri are horrified, Henri is determined to speak out against this atrocity, whilst Dubreuil refuses to do the same, believing that it would constitute a body blow against the fragile popularity of Communism in France. The two friends fall out bitterly, and Henri finds himself on the end of a hate campaign. All the while, the left is fracturing around them, the Communists are becoming ever more stringent in their demands of their followers, and violent retribution for collaborators begins in the épuration. The clarity of the war, where one knew friend from foe, is far away.
The underlying structure of the novel is influenced by Kierkegaard’s concept of repetition: that truly to possess something, one must have lost and found it again. The 1,000 pages of The Mandarins chart this arc at the level of personal relationships and political beliefs. But what it’s really about for me is the possibility of intervention in the world, when so much is at stake, so much that needs to be changed, and whether any of us can act in a way that is politically effective. Robert Dubreuil is the force of political change in this novel, and he is a bulldozer, always trying to persuade others to think the way he does, quick to find political justifications for his own moods and desires. For him, the ends justify the means mostly, and his astute political brain makes him look honest and transparent when he is often not clearly in the right. Henri, after his damaging engagement with politics wants to back out of it all, having lost faith in the possibility of change. But Dubreuil argues with him, insisting that in politics, all personal feelings have to be set aside. By the end, Dubreuil believes that idealism is at the basis of most political failures, and that one must take reality as it is, recognising that most choices are poor ones, and most intervention a messy, uncertain business. But this is preferable to doing nothing at all.
How to engage politically, how to drum up and keep support for causes, and the place of intelligence in political activity seem to me to be issues as vexed and problematic as they were fifty-odd years ago when this novel was written. Les Mandarins makes one case consistently – that the egocentrism of individualism, of protecting ourselves first and foremost from difficult, awkward tasks, is wrong and selfish, and that we should have our community interests at the forefronts of our hearts and minds. It felt refreshing to read that, even if both the novel, and the actual path of history after its publication, faltered over the possibility of keeping that belief in place.
This sounds both wonderful and very pertinent to today’s world. I am putting it on the list for when I am in the mood for a really long book.
I am so glad you like the sound of it! I am very protective of Beauvoir, although she had no need of me as a guard dog. I’d love to know what you think of it.
I’ve never read Beauvoir (shocking!) and am not familiar with her fiction at all, so I was pleased to learn a little more about her writing. This novel does sound satisfying and meaty; I like the idea that the concepts its grappling with are ones that are still relevant and important today.
When I started reading it, I felt ‘at last!’ and the other books I’ve been reading lately began to look vapid by comparison. Wanting to change the world, feeling you are in a position to make it happen and then watching that change run away from you into dissent and dissipation was just a fantastic narrative arc for me. It’s that ideas in novels thing again! 🙂
Camus is one of my literary heroes, but I’m not sure if I’ll have the stamina for this one.
It’s actually a very easy read. I did read it in French and was never troubled by the language at any moment, plus it’s dialogue-heavy. But, I’m also a huge fan of Camus, so by all means read him instead!
Hmm, this sounds interesting, but not sure if I can face a 1,000 page book just now! I read Les Belles Images in French at school, and struggled with it a bit, but I remember my French teacher said I’d love it when I was older. I hated her at the time for saying that, but I have a suspicion she may be right! I think I’d probably reread that (maybe in English this time) before I embark on this one, as fascinating as it sounds. Thanks for the review!
I hardly ever read chunksters myself. I think the fact that it came as two volumes of 500 pages might have had something to do with my tackling it! But yes, Les Belles Images is also a fine Beauvoir vehicle. I can’t imagine how it would come across to a young male adolescent in school and would probably have suggested Le Sang des autres instead. But I do think Beauvoir is an interesting writer, and very astute in her description of relationships.
I’m going to have to look for this book this coming winter. I always love a big chunky book to cuddle up with when it’s cold and snowy outside.
Yay! It is a good read, far easier I think than anything by Dickens or Elliot or any of the chunky 19th century writers. I’d love to know what you make of it if you do read it.
Thanks for an insightful and in-depth review. Very interesting analysis. It sure sounds like an important work, an ‘intellectual blockbuster’ indeed, not just by the page number. I’m intrigued by the people and their thoughts, and how they influenced their society in their time. I’ve never read Beauvoir, but would like to try some day, shorter works to start. Which would you recommend, or, is there short works by her?
Yes, there are shorter works, and she is probably best known for her last published piece, a collection of three longish short stories, La femme rompue (The Broken Woman). These are quite feminist in tone, focussing on what’s wrong with women’s love lives in the mid-20th century, and you might prefer one of her earlier works. Perhaps: She Came To Stay, or The Blood of Others, which are a bit more philosophical and pacey. I’d love to know what you think of her if you do read her!
Now I’m feeling guilty that this is one of the books that went into the Oxfam pile unread. Should I go and buy it back again?
Oh! Don’t do that – borrow a Beauvoir from the library and see if you get on with her. I do love her myself, but like any writer with a highly particular agenda, writing as part of a particularly literary movement, she is not everyone’s cup of tea! 🙂 Have a taste first.
1,000 pages? That’s a hefty doorstopper of a book! It sounds ambitious though. I’ve not read Beauvoir (does that make me a bad feminist?) and this is probably not the novel to start with, but I will keep it in mind anyway. And, might I just say, that is a jaunty chapeau the woman on the cover is wearing 🙂
It IS a long book, but no harder to read than a couple of novels from the Game of Thrones series (and they’re big, right?). I think Simone would forgive you for not having read her – bless her she was quite humble really. And as for that hat, ha! Yes, what an eye-catching number! 🙂
Litlove, you’re back – hurrah!
Like everyone else I’m keen to read this now; not sure it’ll be in the very near future but I’m adding it to my list… I did unearth ‘When Things of the Spirit Come First’ at the charity shop a month or two ago, maybe I’ll start there.
Laughing over Stefanie’s comment!
Ah, all Beauvoir is worth reading. And seriously, I say that not just as a Fan Girl, but as someone who fed her very successfully to a lot of fussy students! 🙂
I will read this one day as I onw a copy but I never noticed how long it is. my copy must have fine pages.
I suppose while reading it I would do a lot of head scratching, just from the few things you mention I have a feeling she embellishes incredibly. Yes, it’s a novel an not memoir, anyway. I would still find it very engaging. The vivacity of her mind, whether we agree with what she writes or not, is wonderful.
I’m afraid to say that the English translation is abridged, so maybe you have that? Although I would imagine you’d have the French. Oh well, perhaps it is fine paper. I completely agree with you over the vivacity of her mind, and that’s a fine way of putting it.
I found the book second hand and it’s one of those French copies where you have to cut open the pages and, as I just saw, the pages are huge, I guess 50 lines per page… That’s how they saved pages but it’s also 600+.
I’ve always been interested in reading Simone de Beauvoir, but I’ve been a little afraid I don’t have the right ‘background’ to try her–I am very weak on philosophy not ever having studied it. When I was living in Austria and only had access to a used English language bookstore one of the last books I bought before coming home was her The Second Sex, which I wish I had been able to read (that was an odd reading year since I had to depend on used book selections–I read a lot of Stephen King!). Unfortunately I didn’t get to it and had to sell it back since I had too much to carry home (though I bought it here at some point and it sits waiting for me). I love the sound of this, but is it the best place to start with her writing? It sounds almost epic in nature and I do love a good long story to dive into, however.
The Second Sex is the most philosophical book Beauvoir wrote, and everything else is really very easy to read. She believed, as did the other Existentialists, that literature was needed to embody the dramas and difficulties of living. So, have no fear! She’s great. I think this is a fine place to start with her – the only issue is the length. You could always try She Came To Stay, which is quite well known. I think you’d like her – and I’d love to know what you make of her!
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I was excited to find your wonderful review of Simone de Beauvoir’s “Les Mandarins”. I am waiting for my recently purchased copies of Tome 1 and Tome 2 to arrive here in Australia from the UK so I can begin reading it. It is not easy to find french books to read here in Australia. Isn’t the internet wonderful! I have read Camus, “L’Étranger, an unusual very existentialist work, which led me to a study on existentialism, Beauvoir and Sartre. I have also found a copy of Beauvoir’s “Une Mort Très Douce”. If you have read it would you suggest reading this before Les Mandarins?